The development of a construct in the heritage urban sustainability index

  • Yazid Saleh Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Hanifah Mahat Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Mohmadisa Hashim
  • Nasir Nayan Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Samsuddin Suhaily Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Mohamad Khairul Anuar Ghazali Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Rahma Hayati Universitas Negeri Semarang
  • Rahma Kurnia Sri Utami Universitas Lampung
Keywords: index, heritage urban sustainability, exploration factor analysis, cultural heritage


The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have outlined that every country in the world needs to create sustainable cities for communities by 2030. The first thing to consider is to identify sustainability indicators to be used as a guide in measuring the sustainability index. Therefore, this article aims to explore the formation of the heritage urban sustainability index construct in Malaysia using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The respondents consisted of 100 residents in the heritage city of Kajang, Malaysia, who were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Likert scale questionnaires 1 to 5 were used to elicit feedback. The results showed that the items in each study construct achieved acceptable reliability with Cronbach’s alpha values greater than 0.70 and met the normality test requirements. Data was processed using EFA for grouping items according to appropriate constructs. The results of the study from 154 items of the questionnaire have formed five main constructs of urban heritage sustainability in Malaysia, namely (1) economic prosperity, (2) social well-being, (3) environmental well-being, (4) cultural heritage, and (5) the role of government and community. The results of this study also meet the index value requirements set by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity. Furthermore, the formation of the five constructs of this study directly demonstrates the relationship between items according to constructs. Indirectly, these findings help research on the sustainability of heritage cities in other areas as well.

Author Biographies

Hanifah Mahat, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

Department of Geography and Environment, Faculty of Human Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak

Mohmadisa Hashim

Department of Geography and Environment, Faculty of Human Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak

Nasir Nayan, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

Department of Geography and Environment, Faculty of Human Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak

Samsuddin Suhaily, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

Institute of Malay Civilization, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia

Mohamad Khairul Anuar Ghazali, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

Department of Geography and Environment, Faculty of Human Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak

Rahma Hayati, Universitas Negeri Semarang

Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia

Rahma Kurnia Sri Utami, Universitas Lampung

Department of Geography Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia


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Original Papers