Filosofia <div class="page"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Rivista annuale fondata nel 1950 da Augusto Guzzo.</p> </div> </div> </div> it-IT <p><strong>Filosofia</strong>&nbsp;applica una licenza&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>&nbsp;a tutto il materiale pubblicato.</p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a></p> ("Filosofia") ("Filosofia") Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Pensare la guerra in tempo di guerra(e) Luca Valera Copyright (c) 2023 Luca Valera Thu, 28 Dec 2023 09:38:57 +0100 Guerra e pace: una metamorfosi <p>We try to delineate both the metamorphosis of the clear-cut relationship between peace and war and the semantic shift the latter have undergone. By reconsidering events since the birth of the modern state, through the use of lenses bequeathed by Carl Schmitt, we show how the clear distinction between peace and war has progressively faded to the point of eroding. Starting from the wars of the 1990s up to the most recent ones, the US has progressively deprived both the UN and NATO of their authority, setting itself up as the guardian of global law. No longer having an enemy of equal power to threaten it and expanding ever further east, it has transformed peace into international security and war into an international police operation. Being, in US narrative, a pacified and americanized world, war and peace have disappeared, being now only matters of’US domestic politics’.</p> Antonio Magariello Copyright (c) 2023 Antonio Magariello Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Le basi psicologiche della guerra e i rimedi per la pace in Hobbes e Kant <p>In 1932, Albert Einstein asked Freud for a way to free humanity from war, stating that no attempt had yielded anything. This article attempts to draw some elements from Hobbes and Kant to answer Einstein’s question. The two philosophers provide various reasons for conceiving peace and war not in dichotomous terms, but as always coexisting polarities – in variable proportions – in the continuum of possible human interactions. In the philosophical perspective outlined here, given the fundamental ambiguity of human beings, there is no exhaustive and definitive answer to Einstein’s question. Following Hobbes and Kant, what can be achieved is not the elimination of any possibility of war, but the progressive improvement of understanding the measures that allow for the reduction of the probability of open hostility among individuals, groups, and States.</p> Luca Mori Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 28 Dec 2023 10:48:37 +0100 Irenologia e polemologia. Due concetti imprescindibili dalla cultura della pace <p>The objective of this article is to present the thesis that peace and violence cannot be treated as if they were natural human characteristics. The naturalization of peace our violence can bring some vices and sociocultural, educational and political damages that are at least very dangerous for everyone regarding the understanding of the lives of human beings and all other beings in the world. This article aims to support the thesis that the culture of peace does not come fortuitously and does not come about suddenly or from one moment to another, demanding, precisely for this reason, constant, continuous and permanent commitment and efforts from ereryone, because violence, even if it is a possibility, is always on the verge of breaking out in many and diverse forms of manifestation. In this sense, we seek to develop the reflection of this article in two moments. Initially, we seek to analyze two important concepts of the culture of peace, namely, “irenology” and “polemology”, in order to, in a second moment, reflect and present the essencial task of education for the culture of peace at all levels of education, be it personal, community, and also institutional. Finally, it points to the key idea that each human being as a citizen of the world needs to feel and become a potencial educator, na artisan and a guardian of peace.</p> Paulo César Nodari Copyright (c) 2023 Paulo César Nodari Thu, 28 Dec 2023 11:16:38 +0100 Nell’abisso dell’uniforme. Guerra, pace e tecnica nel pensiero di Martin Heidegger <p>The aim of the paper is to examine the ontological relationship between war and peace in Heidegger’s thought of technology. Through the analyses of some passages of Overcoming metaphysics and Geschichte des Seins, it tries to show how, in an ontological view, war and peace are the Same [<em>das Selbe</em>]. They are two manifestations of a unique complex phenomenon: the domination of technology as expression of forgetfulness of Being [<em>Seinsvergessenheit</em>]. Crosswise the paper aims to present Heidegger’s critical position toward Nazism, considered as manifestation of Western nihilism.</p> Salvatore Spina Copyright (c) 2023 Salvatore Spina Thu, 28 Dec 2023 11:31:10 +0100 Polemos come unità di guerra e pace. Una rilettura dei Saggi eretici sulla filosofia della storia di Jan Patočka <p>Among the many philosophical contributions on war and peace written in the past century, the last of Jan Patočka’s six <em>Heretical Essays in the Philosophy of History</em> stands out as a particularly intense and enigmatic case. Aim of the present paper is to highlight Patočka’s peculiar account of the relationship between the two concepts, which defies common-sense expectations and argues for an alternative meaning of <em>Polemos</em>. In order to do so, the analysis also needs to carefully look at the five previous Heretical Essays, as well as referencing to the author’s other political writings. The paper therefore starts with a commentary on <em>Wars of the Twentieth Century and the Twentieth Century as War</em>,&nbsp;and then employs a backwards movement as a methodological tool to find the roots of Patočka’s articulation of war and peace in the other essays – revealing, once confronted with the ontological background of the passage from prehistory to history, significant intuitions for a constructive solution.</p> Marco Barbieri Copyright (c) 2023 Marco Barbieri Thu, 28 Dec 2023 11:46:26 +0100 Teoria dei valori e storia. La guerra mondiale di Wilhelm Windelband <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In my contribution, I aim to identify the role of war and conflict within Windelband’s philosophy of history. By examining the philosopher’s body of work, it will be shown how the War Lecture, published during the First World War – an event that posed a risk to the destruction of European civilization – is a manifestation of his theory of values in the light of the stress test of the war experience. The theory of values and the idea of history as a tool of philosophy, as a matrix in which cultural values are born, are tested in it. Kant, Fichte, and Hegel’s reflections on history and war constitute the fundamental theoretical baggage of Windelband’s conception. An analysis of the reworking and redefinition of their thought by him will allow us to delineate the specificity of his perspective and his political coloration in the context of Germany in the 1910s.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sabato Danzilli Copyright (c) 2023 Sabato Danzilli Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Pubblicità, guerra e pace. Un’interpretazione della prospettiva kantiana <div class="page" title="Page 105"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The aim of the article is to unify in one reflection three central themes of Kantian political philosophy: war, peace and publicity. First, I would like to delimit the sphere in which this union is possible, trying to see how peace and war are linked to the concept of public law. Then, I will focus on the relationship between peace, war and the idea of republic. Peace is a duty originating in the purity of law, but Kant is also convinced that in a republic, in which citizens are involved in political decisions, they will prefer peace to war. What role can publicity as a legal principle play?</p> </div> </div> </div> Romina Perni Copyright (c) 2023 Romina Perni Thu, 28 Dec 2023 12:00:13 +0100 Conflit, choix et signification <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Conflicts involve institutions and hence also the rules through which the institutions get a grasp of both the world around them and their own interactions. This indicates that the connection to principles and to the interpretation of norms plays a potentially important role in the explanation or understanding of conflicts. The choice-interpretation link must be examined. In an interactive setting, choices call for interpretations which pertain to the relevant background principles (their implementation, their respective weights in the determination of actions). Trust in a shared order, for example among States on the international scene, calls for limits to the legitimate interpretations of such principles. Moreover, the intricacy between the description of situations and the interpretation of those norms which give a framing to the interactive processes must be taken into account. Shared descriptions play a role in the evolutive interpretation of benchmark norms, and the agents must pay attention to the fact that the observation and description of their own action impact this interpretation. The relevance for peacekeeping is explored through several examples.</p> </div> </div> </div> Emmanuel Picavet Copyright (c) 2023 Emmanuel Picavet Thu, 28 Dec 2023 12:12:11 +0100 Economic Sanctions, well-being, and the duty to trade <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In this paper I would argue that, in the context of the ethics of economic sanctions, there is a duty to trade, and that duty is grounded in the practical and instrumental indispensability of trading for well-being of the people of the states. I understand well-being as the optimal conditions for survival and self-realization that states must warrant to people. I will answer the arguments against a duty to trade, as well as the arguments for a duty not to trade in those cases where the parties to the trade are dictatorships. I will develop my argument based on the metaethical argument about deliberative indispensability in favor of moral facts, developed by David Enoch, and raise an analogy with practical indispensability. The way of states to promote well-being is by trading. If trade is essential for survival, states have a strong prima facie duty to trade. If trade is not essential for survival, but nonetheless it is important for well-being, then states have a weak prima facie duty to trade.</p> </div> </div> </div> Fernando Arancibia-Collao Copyright (c) 2023 Fernando Arancibia-Collao Thu, 28 Dec 2023 12:43:04 +0100 Subire la violenza, ripensare la vulnerabilità: riflessioni su guerra, pace e comunità <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The aim of this paper is to reflect on war, starting from a reconsideration of the notions of force and vulnerability. The goal is not to deny toutcourt the dimension of conflict, but to affirm that it is not only through force and a hypothetical consequent state of war that it is possible to find a solution. The American philosopher Judith Butler, in Precarious Lives, underlines how human beings are subject to the violence of the others. If violence inhabits our lives, we should understand in which way we react to it; if force appears to be the only viable way or if there are new ways, different terms and further forms in which it is possible to remain in a dimension of conflict. We discuss – in a gender perspective – that Feminism gave the possibility to consider differently in which ways we can exercise power on the others.</p> </div> </div> </div> Claudia Manzione Copyright (c) 2023 Claudia Manzione Thu, 28 Dec 2023 12:49:30 +0100 Bertrand Russell: from Neo-Idealism to Mathematical Logic <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This essay is dedicated to the transition from neo-idealism to neo- positivism at Trinity College Cambridge at the beginning of 20th century. In 1903 George Edward Moore’s The Refutation of Idealism and Bertrand Russell’s The Principles of Mathematics marked the birth of mathematical logic. Especially Russell’s The Principles of Mathematics contain the theory of classes and the notion of denoting for the development of neo-positivism, then logical empiricism in the European continent. The objective of the article consists of underline the central position of neo-positivism in the twentieth-century philosophy. Indeed neo- positivism of Trinity College Cambridge has to be linked to the logical empiricism of the Vienna Circle, of the Berlin Circle and of the Lvov-Warsaw School. In that sense, the history of contemporary thought can be interpreted by the duality idealism/anti-idealism.</p> </div> </div> </div> Caterina Genna Copyright (c) 2023 Caterina Genna Thu, 28 Dec 2023 12:56:24 +0100 L'impasse di Frege sulle funzioni predicative è condiviso da Aristotele e Wittgenstein? <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The idea of rejecting a certain form of transcendental realism fits perfectly with Wittgenstein’s and Aristotle’s anti-realistic account of the world, and may serve in a humanly accessible form of realism to implement the resolution of Frege’s epistemological impasses. Frege has taught us that it is possible to discover reality solely through the use of reason. Aristotle and Wittgenstein, on the other hand, have warned us that any such attempt at discovery is fraught with difficulty; it is the task of thinkers to painfully (even frustratingly) seek to uncover the order and laws underlying what really exists in the world. Frege’s rationality is finally seen to be decreasing, as it takes refuge in meanings of concepts and results in his almost total silence as regards their predicative functions. Able, if reluctant, to understand the way out of the impasse in that there can be no other criteria than the ordinary ones for what is habitually done, the way suggested by Aristotle’s use of the “square of oppositions”, Frege paves the way for a philosophical understanding of Aristotle’s and Wittgenstein’s rejection of a robust form of realism in favour of a less demanding form of it.</p> </div> </div> </div> Virginia M. Giouli Copyright (c) 2023 Virginia M. Giouli Thu, 28 Dec 2023 13:18:51 +0100 Il teatro come metafisica del concreto secondo Artaud <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This paper discusses Antonin Artaud’s conception of the relationship between thought and existence, affirming that rational thought never manages to grasp concrete existence. Through the revolution of theatre, though, Artaud pursues a new form of thought capable of preserving its intimate connection with life. Therefore, he questions traditional Western theatre, which relies on representation, mimesis and on the supremacy of text, of language, of the written word. In contrast, he proposes a new idea of theatre, with an emphasis on gestures, movements, and symbols. According to Artaud, this form of theatre, deeply rooted in the materiality of the staging, becomes a metaphysical practice which allows to break the barriers between the abstract and the concrete and to draw ideas belonging to a spiritual order, revealing hidden truths about human existence.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sara Cocito Copyright (c) 2023 Sara Cocito Thu, 28 Dec 2023 14:17:45 +0100 The Challenge of the Subject in the Face of the Real <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In one of her recent interviews, Catherine Malabou pointed out a problem which I deem to be pivotal in considering the question of the real with all its implications: speculative realists are indifferent to the subject. In this paper, I will present my position that in contemporary philosophy it is precisely the problem of the subject that becomes an actual challenge when raising the question “What kind of reality are we talking about?”; “What is real?” In light of treating the problem of the subject as a theoretical challenge in regard to the question of reality, two positions, that of Catherine Malabou (The New Wounded, Before Tomorrow) and Giorgio Agamben (Infanzia e storia), will be analysed and attempted to be compared. I will endeavour to discuss the problem how is the notion of the subject, the question of its identities, its transformations, being human-non-human, correlated to the question of reality.</p> </div> </div> </div> Rita Šerpytytė Copyright (c) 2023 Rita Šerpytytė Thu, 28 Dec 2023 14:23:42 +0100 Il profilo personalistico dell’idealismo trascendente di Piero Martinetti <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This paper seeks to identify the space and function of the concept of “person” within Piero Martinetti’s metaphysics, with specific reference to his last and unfinished work, called by editor Emilio Agazzi “Metaphysics” or also “General Metaphysics,” constituting an extension, in the ontological sphere, of the Piedmontese philosopher’s best-known work, the “Introduction to Metaphysics.” The analysis conducted reveals the centrality of the person in Martinetti’s metaphysics and its neo-Platonic inspiration. I point out how Martinetti implements a henological foundation of the person, as opposed to the empiricist perspective, which understands the person only as a relational node. Also noted are the reasons for the proximity between Martinetti’s thought and the ontological foundation of the person operated by the metaphysics of Being, concerning Leibniz and Lotze, and also the aspects distant from it since, for Martinetti, the person extends its scope to the possible individual life after death, but does not constitute a final landing place on the path beginning with the birth of man.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Sandro Mancini Copyright (c) 2023 Sandro Mancini Thu, 28 Dec 2023 15:37:16 +0100 Il tempo disgiunto e la necessità della contingenza: dall'à-venir all'a-venir? <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This paper aims at rethinking Meillassoux’s idea of the necessity of contingency by putting it in the context of Derridian and Deleuzian attempts of reimagining the temporal triad of past, present, and future. The paper raises a problem of compatibility of two Meillassoux’s ontological assumptions: A) the real has no ground, that is, there is no principle of ontological causal necessity; B) something radically new can emerge in the real. A and B can be compatible if and only if the real in question has a structure which is both coherent enough to be torn by the ontological rupture and remains irreducible to causality-based principles. The author of this paper holds that structure of the real that is necessary to ground the compatibility of the two assumptions requires developing a notion of the future as what is to come yet never comes.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Daina Habdankaitė Copyright (c) 2023 Daina Habdankaitė Thu, 28 Dec 2023 15:52:38 +0100 Il “mondo alla rovescia”. Abbozzo di una teoria politico-fenomenologica della fuga <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The discourse on escaping is primarily directed towards the who of escape. The question of how of escaping in its philosophical significance is normally neglected. For this purpose, it is necessary to rethink escape as a triple articulated phenomenological topology based on three vectors: escape as a start, as a transition and as a destination / refuge. By examining its political and spatial-philosophical characteristics (escape as a separation, as a non-place and as a fugue) as well its topological dimensions (earth as exile, see and desert, earth as asylum), escape emerges as a dynamic phenomenon that is due to reshape essential concepts and inverse traditional categories of politics.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Giovanni Tidona Copyright (c) 2023 Giovanni Tidona Thu, 28 Dec 2023 16:59:04 +0100 Vulnerabilità, ospitalità e cura in contesti culturalmente diversi <p class="p1"><span class="s1">After establishing a philosophical frame of reference, we begin by thinking about current responses to cultural diversity, in the context of vulnerability and the anthropological characteristics that arise from it. But a significant part of the situations of vulnerability in the contemporary world, the reality of cultural diversity resulting from displacement movements, the situation of ethnic minorities and some post-colonization phenomena place at the center of responses to the challenges of this multiculturality the concept of hospitality: this concept not only has an ethical and political scope but is also characterized by its epistemological dimension and its anthropological meaning. The ethics of care, consideration, solicitude and resonance are then proposed as the referential framework within which we can today think about the social and political demands of welcoming those who represent difference within our societies.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> João Maria André Copyright (c) 2023 João Maria André Thu, 28 Dec 2023 16:31:03 +0100 Produrre spreco. Usi e consumi dell’abbondanza postindustriale <p>Productive waste is described by Jean Baudrillard as one of the most striking reactions to the high internal operating costs of consumer society. In order to sustain growth, this kind of society must integrate into its production processes some calculated disadvantages that are not based solely on consumption, but on the destruction of wide arrays of goods, which are thrown away prematurely to be bought again and again. Understanding productive waste is crucial to grasp the interplay between economic growth, consumerism, and environmental degradation, as it accelerates the commodification of nature through new patterns of destruction, like psychological and planned obsolescence. In this regard, the aim of the present paper is to examine productive waste in relation to violent symbolic destructions called “potlatches” in the interest of highlighting the risk of giving rise to what Marcel Mauss describes as the immense non-repayable potlatch, that is, an unequaled waste, that of the Earth.</p> Vittoria Moccagatta Copyright (c) 2024 Vittoria Moccagatta Wed, 03 Jan 2024 20:30:20 +0100 François Hartog, Chronos. Alla ricerca del tempo perduto, Torino, Einaudi, 2022, 328 pp. Vincenzo Maria Di Mino Copyright (c) 2023 Vincenzo Maria Di Mino Thu, 28 Dec 2023 17:39:30 +0100